General Principles of Humanized Mice
Currently Employed “Host” Mice
- •Humanized mice better recapitulate human diseasethan traditional mouse models.
- •Genetic modifications can be employed to further“humanize” mice.
- •Humanized mice can serve as preclinical modelsto test novel therapeutics; results may better reflecthuman drug metabolism, side-effect profiles, andefficacy.
- •Complete multilineage engraftment of the humanhematopoietic system and development of memoryT- and B-cell responses are difficult to obtain.
- •Cross-reaction between coexpressed mouse andhuman factors can confound experimental results.
- •Absence of additional human factors, such ascytokines, homing ligands, and receptors, may limitaccurate modeling of human physiology/pathology.
Types of Human Cells/Tissues Engrafted
Humanized immune system
Transplantation of nonimmune cells/tissues
Genetically modified humanized mice
Humanized Mice in Dermatology Research
- 1.Hu-PBL refers to which of the following type of humanized mouse models:
- A.Mice transplanted with fetal liver and thymus fragments.
- B.Immunodeficient mice in which PBMCs or lymphocytesare transplanted with engraftment of mature lymphocytes.
- C.Immunocompetent mice transplanted with human cells lacking IL-2 expression.
- D.Immunodeficient mice transplanted with PBMCs or lymphocytes with resultant multilineage hematopoiesis.
- 2.Why are immunodeficient mice used as “hosts” for humanized mouse models?
- A.Immunocompetent mice have dendritic cells that would reject human cells.
- B.There is space in the host-mouse bone marrowfor engraftment of human cells.
- C.They lack T, B, and natural killer cells that wouldotherwise reject human cells.
- D.Their inability to signal through IL-4, -7, -9, -15,and -22 prevents rejection of human cells.
- 3.What immunodeficient strains are most commonly employed for humanized mouse models?
- A.SCID and nude mice.
- B.Rag and nude mice.
- C.NSG and NOG mice.
- D.NSG and Rag mice.
- 4.Humanized mouse models have been used in which of the following areas of dermatologic research?
- A.Pemphigus vulgaris and other autoimmune diseases.
- B.Wound healing.
- C.Squamous cell carcinoma and other cutaneous malignancies.
- D.All of the above.
- 5.Which is true of humanized mouse models?
- A.They are diverse and in constant development.
- B.The term refers to mice containing functionalhuman proteins, cells, tissues, and organs.
- C.They may also be called “human–mouse chimeras” or “xenotransplants” in the case of mice containing human cells or tissues.
- D.All of the above.
- Supplementary Information
- Rtms Answers
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The authors state no conflict of interest.
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