Abbreviations:AD (atopic dermatitis), HBD (human β-defensin), HDP (host defense peptide), KC (keratinocyte), LOF (loss-of-function), NMF (natural-moisturizing factor), PLA2 (phospholipase A2), TEWL (transepidermal water loss), Th (T helper), Treg (T regulatory cell)
- Asher M.I.
- Montefort S.
- Björkstén B.
- Lai C.K.W.
- Strachan D.P.
- Weiland S.K.
- et al.
Contributing Factors: Inside and Out
Multidirectional Interactions Between the Contributing Factors in AD Pathogenesis
Barrier dysfunction and dysbiosis
Barrier dysfunction alters the skin microbiome
Microbiome composition affects skin barrier function
Barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation
Barrier dysfunction induces immune dysregulation
Immune dysregulation alters skin barrier function
Dysbiosis and immune dysregulation
Skin microbiome alters immune responses in AD
- Laborel-Préneron E.
- Bianchi P.
- Boralevi F.
- Lehours P.
- Fraysse F.
- Morice-Picard F.
- et al.
Immune dysregulation alters the skin microbiome
Barrier dysfunction, dysbiosis, and immune dysregulation
Therapeutics: Taking Complex Interactions into Account
- Kao J.S.
- Fluhr J.W.
- Man M.Q.
- Fowler A.J.
- Hachem J.P.
- Crumrine D.
- et al.
- Guttman-Yassky E.
- Brunner P.M.
- Neumann A.U.
- Khattri S.
- Pavel A.B.
- Malik K.
- et al.
- Galapagos N.V.
- Ungar B.
- Pavel A.B.
- Li R.
- Kimmel G.
- Nia J.
- Hashim P.
- et al.
Conflict of Interest
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