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Differential Involvement of Programmed Cell Death Ligands in Skin Immune Responses

      PD-1 is an immunoregulatory receptor that can bind PD-L1 or PD-L2 expressed on stimulated antigen-presenting cells. In this study, isolated antigen-presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) were cultured with IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-17A, and the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 was compared by flow cytometry. Strong upregulation of PD-L1 expression was observed on IFN-γ stimulation of both antigen-presenting cells as well as in response to IL-17A stimulation of macrophages compared with the expression in unstimulated controls. In contrast, only stimulation with IL-4 could upregulate PD-L2 expression on both antigen-presenting cells. Therefore, experiments were performed in murine models, including DNFB-induced contact hypersensitivity, calcipotriol-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation, and imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis models, to trigger IFN-γ‒mediated T helper type (Th)1-, IL-4‒mediated Th2-, and IL-17A‒mediated Th17-type responses, respectively. In both Th1- and Th17-type immunity models, changes in ear thickness were more severe in Pd-l1‒deficient mice than in wild-type or Pd-l2‒deficient mice. In the Th2-type immunity model, changes in thickness in Pd-l2‒deficient mice were more severe than that in wild-type or Pd-l1‒deficient mice. Collectively, PD-L1 has predominant roles in Th1 and Th17 type immunity, whereas PD-L2 is involved in Th2-type immunity.

      Abbreviations:

      AD (atopic dermatitis), APC (antigen-presenting cell), CHS (contact hypersensitivity), DC (dendritic cell), dLN (draining lymph node), IMQ (imiquimod), irAE (immune-related adverse event), LC (Langerhans cell), Th (T helper type), WT (wild type)
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