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Keratinocyte Regnase-1, a Downregulator of Skin Inflammation, Contributes to Protection against Tumor Promotion by Limiting Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression

Published:December 02, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2022.11.007
      We previously showed that the ribonuclease Regnase-1 (Reg1) in keratinocytes plays a role in mitigating skin inflammation by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we explored whether Reg1 also has a protective role against skin carcinogenesis. The chemically induced two-stage carcinogenesis protocol revealed that epidermis-specific Reg1-deficient (Reg1-knockout [Reg1-cKO]) mice developed skin tumors with shorter latency and more multiplicity than control mice. In addition, repeated UVB irradiation readily provoked solar keratosis-like lesions in Reg1-cKO mice. Increased levels of cyclooxygenase 2, whose mRNA (Ptgs2) is reportedly a target of Reg1, have been known to be associated with the development of squamous cell carcinomas. Indeed, Ptgs2 mRNA levels were upregulated in the skin of Reg1-cKO mice after treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The level of prostaglandin E2 was higher in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate‒treated Reg1-cKO mouse skin than in control mice skin. Moreover, in vivo inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 attenuated the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate‒induced epidermal thickening in Reg1-cKO mice. Finally, REG1 knockdown in human squamous cell carcinomas lines enhanced PTGS2 mRNA levels after 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment. In conclusion, epidermal Reg1 plays a regulatory role not only in skin inflammation but also in tumor promotion through the downregulation of cyclooxygenase 2. Therefore, forced expression of Reg1 under inflammatory conditions may be relevant to preventing skin cancer.

      Abbreviations:

      COX-2 (cyclooxygenase 2), DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), IMQ (imiquimod), KC (keratinocyte), SCC (squamous cell carcinoma), PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), Reg1 (Regnase-1), Reg1-cKO (Regnase-1‒knockout), siRNA (small interfering RNA), TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)
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