January 2019 — Vol 139 No 1

 TEM and SEM images of cell-to-cell contacts between HTLV-1+ iDCs and autologous CD4+ T cells after co-culture for  48 hours. The boxed areas in the upper panels are enlarged in the lower panels.  Scale bars = 2 microns (left upper), 1 micron (left lower), 5 microns (right upper), and 3 microns (right lower).

Mechanisms that are responsible for systemic dissemination of HTLV-1 after initial infections at sites of inoculation are incompletely characterized. In this issue, Shimauchi and coworkers demonstrate that immature dendritic cells can transfer viral particles from infected CD4+ T cells to uninfected T cells via processes that involve direct cell-cell interactions. Representative contacts are visualized in these transmission and scanning electron microscopy images. See the Original Article on page 157 for details.