Pemphigus & Pemphigoid
- The study by Plaquevent et al. strongly supports the recent discovery that the use of gliptins is a risk factor for bullous pemphigoid (BP). However, regarding the phenotype of gliptin-associated BP and the necessity of gliptin withdrawal, clinical data remain scarce. We predict that future studies of gliptin-associated BP will offer valuable information concerning autoimmunity against BP180 and may also shed light on the pathology of autoimmune diseases in general.
- Neurologic patients have an increased risk for bullous pemphigoid (BP), in which autoantibodies target BP180, a cutaneous basement membrane protein also expressed in the brain. Here we show that 53.6% of sera from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 56) had IgG reactivity against full-length BP180 in immunoblotting, while in BP180 non-collagenous 16A ELISA (n = 143), only 7.7% of MS samples studied were positive. Epitope mapping with 13 fusion proteins covering the entire BP180 polypeptide revealed that in MS and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, IgG autoantibodies target regions located in the intracellular and mid-extracellular parts of BP180, but not the well-known BP epitopes located in the non-collagenous 16A domain and the distal part of extracellular domain.
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to COL17. Currently, systemic corticosteroids are used as first-line treatments for BP; alternatively, intravenous administration of high-dose IgG (IVIG) has been shown to be effective for patients with steroid-resistant BP in clinical practice. However, the effect of IVIG on BP has not fully been investigated. To examine the effects and mechanisms of action of IVIG against BP, we performed IVIG experiments using two experimental BP mouse models.
- Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) has been widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 inactivates incretins by catalyzing the cleavage of those proteins to inactive forms (Drucker, 2007). DPP-4i works by inhibiting the action of this enzyme and improves glycemic control (Aschner and Kipnes, 2006). DPP-4i has been known as a safe drug; however, an increased risk of bullous pemphigoid (BP) during DPP-4i exposure has been reported in diabetic patients administered DPP-4i (Béné et al., 2016).
- Autoimmune blistering diseases are a heterogeneous group of about a dozen complex disorders that are characterized by intraepidermal (pemphigus) and subepidermal blistering (pemphigoid diseases and dermatitis herpetiformis). The Pathogenesis of Pemphigus and Pemphigoid Meeting, organized by the Departments of Dermatology in Lübeck and Marburg and the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Munich, was held in September 2016 in Munich. The meeting brought together basic scientists and clinicians from all continents dedicating their work to autoimmune blistering diseases.
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a major autoimmune blistering skin disorder, in which a majority of the autoantibodies (autoAbs) target the juxtamembranous extracellular noncollagenous 16A domain (NC16A) domain of hemidesmosomal collagen XVII. BP-autoAbs may target regions of collagen XVII other than the NC16A domain; however, correlations between epitopes of BP-autoAbs and clinical features have not been fully elucidated. To address correlations between the clinical features and specific epitopes of BP-autoAbs, we evaluated the epitope profiles of BP-autoAbs in 121 patients.
- In bullous pemphigoid, the common autoimmune blistering disorder, IgG autoantibodies target various epitopes on hemidesmosomal transmembrane collagen XVII (COL17)/BP180. Antibodies (Abs) targeting the extracellular noncollagenous 16th A domain of COL17 may be pathogenic; however, the pathogenic roles of Abs targeting non-noncollagenous 16th A regions are poorly understood. In this study using a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the noncollagenous 16th A domain (mAb TS39-3) and the C-terminus domain (mAb C17-C1), respectively, we show that endocytosis of immune complexes after binding of Abs to cell surface COL17 is a key phenomenon that induces skin fragility.