Pemphigus & Pemphigoid
- Neurologic patients have an increased risk for bullous pemphigoid (BP), in which autoantibodies target BP180, a cutaneous basement membrane protein also expressed in the brain. Here we show that 53.6% of sera from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 56) had IgG reactivity against full-length BP180 in immunoblotting, while in BP180 non-collagenous 16A ELISA (n = 143), only 7.7% of MS samples studied were positive. Epitope mapping with 13 fusion proteins covering the entire BP180 polypeptide revealed that in MS and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, IgG autoantibodies target regions located in the intracellular and mid-extracellular parts of BP180, but not the well-known BP epitopes located in the non-collagenous 16A domain and the distal part of extracellular domain.
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies targeting the juxtamembranous extracellular noncollagenous 16A (NC16A) domain of human collagen XVII (also known as BP180). Because T-helper (Th) cells are essential for antibody responses to antigens, we adopted an assay to map the immunodominant Th2-cell epitopes in NC16A. We synthesized 22 overlapping peptides spanning the entire sequence of BP180-NC16A and investigated the reactivity of Th2 cells from patients with BP to these peptides using the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assay.
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to COL17. Currently, systemic corticosteroids are used as first-line treatments for BP; alternatively, intravenous administration of high-dose IgG (IVIG) has been shown to be effective for patients with steroid-resistant BP in clinical practice. However, the effect of IVIG on BP has not fully been investigated. To examine the effects and mechanisms of action of IVIG against BP, we performed IVIG experiments using two experimental BP mouse models.
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal blistering skin disease, which has shown a strong association with neurological diseases in epidemiological studies. The BP autoantigens BP180 and BP230 are expressed in the cutaneous basement membrane and the central nervous system. Using BP180 and BP230 ELISA assays and immunoblotting against BP180, we analyzed the IgG reactivity in the sera of 115 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 40 neurologically healthy controls. BP180 autoantibodies were found in 18% of patients with AD, whereas only 3% of controls had positive results (P = 0.019).
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a major autoimmune blistering skin disorder, in which a majority of the autoantibodies (autoAbs) target the juxtamembranous extracellular noncollagenous 16A domain (NC16A) domain of hemidesmosomal collagen XVII. BP-autoAbs may target regions of collagen XVII other than the NC16A domain; however, correlations between epitopes of BP-autoAbs and clinical features have not been fully elucidated. To address correlations between the clinical features and specific epitopes of BP-autoAbs, we evaluated the epitope profiles of BP-autoAbs in 121 patients.
- In bullous pemphigoid, the common autoimmune blistering disorder, IgG autoantibodies target various epitopes on hemidesmosomal transmembrane collagen XVII (COL17)/BP180. Antibodies (Abs) targeting the extracellular noncollagenous 16th A domain of COL17 may be pathogenic; however, the pathogenic roles of Abs targeting non-noncollagenous 16th A regions are poorly understood. In this study using a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the noncollagenous 16th A domain (mAb TS39-3) and the C-terminus domain (mAb C17-C1), respectively, we show that endocytosis of immune complexes after binding of Abs to cell surface COL17 is a key phenomenon that induces skin fragility.