BRAF and RAS Mutations in Sporadic and Secondary Pyogenic GranulomaPyogenic granuloma (PG) is a common benign vascular skin lesion presenting as a rapidly growing angiomatous papule. The pathogenesis of most sporadic PGs and PGs associated with port wine stains (PWSs) remains elusive. We report that of 10 PGs secondarily arisen on a PWS, 8 showed a BRAF c.1799T>A (p.(Val600Glu)) and 1 a NRAS c.182A>G (p.(Gln61Arg)) mutation. The GNAQ c.548G>A mutation was identified in the PG and in the respective underlying PWS, indicating that PGs originate from cells of the PWS.
Mosaic Activating Mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ Are Associated with Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis and Extensive Dermal MelanocytosisCommon birthmarks can be an indicator of underlying genetic disease but are often overlooked. Mongolian blue spots (dermal melanocytosis) are usually localized and transient, but they can be extensive, permanent, and associated with extracutaneous abnormalities. Co-occurrence with vascular birthmarks defines a subtype of phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, a group of syndromes associated with neurovascular, ophthalmological, overgrowth, and malignant complications. Here, we discover that extensive dermal melanocytosis and phakomatosis pigmentovascularis are associated with activating mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ, genes that encode Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins.