- It is unclear to what degree genomic and traditional (phenotypic and environmental) risk factors overlap in their prediction of melanoma risk. We evaluated the incremental contribution of common genomic variants (in pigmentation, nevus, and other pathways) and their overlap with traditional risk factors, using data from two population-based case-control studies from Australia (n = 1,035) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,460) that used the same questionnaires. Polygenic risk scores were derived from 21 gene regions associated with melanoma and odds ratios from published meta-analyses.
- Public health guidance recommends limiting sun exposure to sub-sunburn levels, but it is unknown whether these can gain vitamin D (for musculoskeletal health) while avoiding epidermal DNA damage (initiates skin cancer). Well-characterized healthy humans of all skin types (I–VI, lightest to darkest skin) were exposed to a low-dose series of solar simulated UVR of 20%–80% their individual sunburn threshold dose (minimal erythema dose). Significant UVR dose responses were seen for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and whole epidermal cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), with as little as 0.2 minimal erythema dose concurrently producing 25-hydroxyvitamin D and CPD.