Vitiligo Skin: Exploring the Dermal CompartmentThere is an increasing interest in the apparently normal skin in vitiligo. Altered expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin and persistent deregulated intracellular redox status that promotes the acquisition of a stress-induced senescent phenotype in melanocytes of normally pigmented skin from patients with vitiligo have been described. Growing evidence has shown that such cellular and functional alterations are not necessarily restricted to melanocytes but may be extended to other cutaneous cell populations in both lesional and nonlesional areas.
MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human VitiligoVitiligo is a common chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical causes, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. In this study we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocyte line HEM-l by RNA sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics.
Phenformin Inhibits Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Enhances the Anti-Tumor Activity of PD-1 Blockade in MelanomaBiguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have shown antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, their potential effects on the tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. Here we report that phenformin selectively inhibits granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in spleens of tumor-bearing mice and ex vivo. Phenformin induces production of reactive oxygen species in granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, whereas the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuates the inhibitory effects of phenformin.
Simvastatin Protects Human Melanocytes from H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress by Activating Nrf2The prevention of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress has proved to be beneficial to vitiligo patients. Simvastatin possesses antioxidative capacity and has shown protective effect in various oxidative stress-related diseases. However, whether simvastatin can protect human melanocytes against oxidative stress has not been investigated. In this study, we initially found that pretreatment with 0.1 μmol/L to 1.0 μmol/L simvastatin led to increased cell viability and decreased cell apoptosis of melanocytes in response to H2O2.
NADPH Oxidase-1 Plays a Key Role in Keratinocyte Responses to UV Radiation and UVB-Induced Skin CarcinogenesisThe nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) family enzymes are involved in several physiological functions. However, their roles in keratinocyte responses to UV radiation have not been clearly elucidated. This study shows that, among other NOX family members, UVB irradiation results in a biphasic activation of NOX1 that plays a critical role in defining keratinocyte fate through the modulation of the DNA damage response network. Indeed, suppression of both bursts of UVB-induced NOX1 activation by using a specific peptide inhibitor of NOX1 (InhNOX1) is associated with increased nucleotide excision repair efficiency and reduction of apoptosis, which is finally translated into decreased photocarcinogenesis.
Oxidative Damage Control in a Human (Mini-) Organ: Nrf2 Activation Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Hair Growth InhibitionThe in situ control of redox insult in human organs is of major clinical relevance, yet remains incompletely understood. Activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), the “master regulator” of genes controlling cellular redox homeostasis, is advocated as a therapeutic strategy for diseases with severely impaired redox balance. It remains to be shown whether this strategy is effective in human organs, rather than only in isolated human cell types. We have therefore explored the role of Nrf2 in a uniquely accessible human (mini-) organ: scalp hair follicles.
Reactive Oxygen Species Dictate the Apoptotic Response of Melanoma Cells to TH588The effect of MTH1 inhibition on cancer cell survival has been elusive. Here we report that although silencing of MTH1 does not affect survival of melanoma cells, TH588, one of the first-in-class MTH1 inhibitors, kills melanoma cells through apoptosis independently of its inhibitory effect on MTH1. Induction of apoptosis by TH588 was not alleviated by MTH1 overexpression or introduction of the bacterial homolog of MTH1 that has 8-oxodGTPase activity but cannot be inhibited by TH588, indicating that MTH1 inhibition is not the cause of TH588-induced killing of melanoma cells.
Down-Regulation of SOX2 Underlies the Inhibitory Effects of the Triphenylmethane Gentian Violet on Melanoma Cell Self-Renewal and SurvivalHuman melanomas contain a population of tumor-initiating cells that are able to maintain the growth of the tumor. We previously showed that the embryonic transcription factor SOX2 is essential for self-renewal and tumorigenicity of human melanoma-initiating cells. However, targeting a transcription factor is still challenging. Gentian violet (GV) is a cationic triphenylmethane dye with potent antifungal and antibacterial activity. Recently, a combination therapy of imiquimod and GV has shown an inhibitory effect against melanoma metastases.
UVA-Irradiation Induces Melanoma Invasion via the Enhanced Warburg EffectMelanoma is a malignant tumor in which UVA (320–400 nm) radiation is considered to be an important risk factor. But the role of UVA in melanoma progression toward an invasive phenotype is still not adequately investigated. For most proliferating tumor cells the preference of aerobic glycolysis has been described as the Warburg effect. Here we investigate the effect of UVA irradiation on changes in the Warburg effect and tumor progression toward invasive potential. On UVA irradiation, melanoma cell lines from initial tumors show an induction of the Warburg effect with increased glucose consumption and lactate production, which is at least partially mediated by reactive oxygen species.
Age-Dependent Decrease of Mitochondrial Complex II Activity in Human Skin FibroblastsThe mitochondrial theory of aging remains one of the most widely accepted aging theories and implicates mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction with subsequent increasing free radical generation. Recently, complex II of the electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in this process, suggested predominantly by nonhuman studies. We investigated the relationship between complex II and aging using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering a wide age range.
Increased, but Functionally Impaired, CD14+ HLA-DR–/low Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Psoriasis: A Mechanism of Dysregulated T CellsThe clinical extent of psoriasis pathology is regulated in part by defects in immune networks, including a defect in the suppressive actions of regulatory T cells. Recently, CD14+ HLA-DR–/low monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs) have been shown to suppress T-cell activation as one of their suppressive mechanisms. However, little is known about the role of Mo-MDSCs and their functional relationship to T-cell suppression in relation to human chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis.