Repigmentation of Human Vitiligo Skin by NBUVB Is Controlled by Transcription of GLI1 and Activation of the β-Catenin Pathway in the Hair Follicle Bulge Stem CellsVitiligo repigmentation is a complex process in which the melanocyte-depleted interfollicular epidermis is repopulated by melanocyte precursors from hair follicle bulge that proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes on their way to the epidermis. The strongest stimulus for vitiligo repigmentation is narrow-band UVB (NBUVB), but how the hair follicle melanocyte precursors are activated by UV light has not been extensively studied. To better understand this process, we developed an application that combined laser capture microdissection and subsequent whole transcriptome RNA sequencing of hair follicle bulge melanocyte precursors and compared their gene signatures to that of regenerated mature epidermal melanocytes from NBUVB-treated vitiligo skin.
Vitiligo Skin: Exploring the Dermal CompartmentThere is an increasing interest in the apparently normal skin in vitiligo. Altered expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin and persistent deregulated intracellular redox status that promotes the acquisition of a stress-induced senescent phenotype in melanocytes of normally pigmented skin from patients with vitiligo have been described. Growing evidence has shown that such cellular and functional alterations are not necessarily restricted to melanocytes but may be extended to other cutaneous cell populations in both lesional and nonlesional areas.
STING Is Involved in Antiviral Immune Response against VZV Infection via the Induction of Type I and III IFN PathwaysVaricella zoster virus (VZV) is a human-restricted α-herpesvirus that exhibits tropism for the skin. The VZV host receptors and downstream signaling pathways responsible for the antiviral innate immune response in the skin are not completely understood. Here, we show that STING mediates an important host defense against VZV infection in dermal cells including human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. Inhibition of STING using small interfering-RNA or short hairpin RNA-mediated gene disruption resulted in enhanced viral replication but diminished IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines.
MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human VitiligoVitiligo is a common chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical causes, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. In this study we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocyte line HEM-l by RNA sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics.
Long Noncoding RNA PICSAR Promotes Growth of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Regulating ERK1/2 ActivityKeratinocyte-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer, and its incidence is increasing globally. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are involved in various biological processes, and their role in cancer progression is emerging. Whole transcriptome analysis of cSCC cells (n = 8) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (n = 4) revealed overexpression of long intergenic ncRNA (LINC00162) in cSCC cells. The expression of LINC00162 in cSCC cells was upregulated by inhibition of the p38α and p38δ mitogen-activated protein kinases.
The Aldo-Keto Reductase AKR1B10 Is Up-Regulated in Keloid Epidermis, Implicating Retinoic Acid Pathway Dysregulation in the Pathogenesis of Keloid DiseaseKeloid disease is a recurrent fibroproliferative cutaneous tumor of unknown pathogenesis for which clinical management remains unsatisfactory. To obtain new insights into hitherto underappreciated aspects of keloid pathobiology, we took a laser capture microdissection-based, whole-genome microarray analysis approach to identify distinct keloid disease-associated gene expression patterns within defined keloid regions. Identification of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme AKR1B10 as highly up-regulated in keloid epidermis suggested that an imbalance of retinoic acid metabolism is likely associated with keloid disease.
Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Promotes Autophagy to Facilitate Cisplatin Resistance in Melanoma Cells through the Activation of PARP1Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a key protein in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, has been shown to promote the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by facilitating the DNA repair process. However, the role of XPA in the resistance of melanoma to platinum-based drugs like cisplatin is largely unknown. In this study, we initially found that XPA was expressed at higher levels in cisplatin-resistant melanoma cells than in cisplatin-sensitive ones. Furthermore, the knockdown of XPA not only increased cellular apoptosis but also inhibited cisplatin-induced autophagy, which rendered the melanoma cells more sensitive to cisplatin.