- This study revealed the modulatory role of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channels in the Aldara-induced (5% imiquimod) murine psoriasis model using selective antagonists and genetically altered animals. We have also developed a refined localized model to enable internal controls and reduce systemic effects. Skin pathology was quantified by measuring skin thickness, scaling, blood flow, and analyzing dermal cellular infiltrate, whereas nocifensive behaviors were also observed.
- The neuropeptide galanin is distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in non-neuronal peripheral organs, including the skin. Galanin acts via three G protein-coupled receptors which, except galanin receptor 1, are expressed in various skin structures. The galanin system has been associated with inflammatory processes of the skin and of several other organs. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease with increased neovascularization, keratinocyte hyperproliferation, a proinflammatory cytokine milieu, and immune cell infiltration.
- Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation of epidermis. Although hyperproliferation-associated keratins K6, K16, and K17 are considered to be the hallmarks of psoriasis, the molecular basis underlying the overexpression of these keratins remains unclear. Nrf2 regulates cell proliferation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nrf2 regulates keratinocyte proliferation via promoting expression of K6, K16, and K17 in psoriasis. We initially found that psoriatic epidermis exhibited elevated expression of Nrf2.
- Psoriasis is a highly visible, chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder that affects 2–3% of the US population (Lowes et al., 2014). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-17A synergistically up-regulate the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides from keratinocytes and regional immune cells, initiating and perpetuating the immune activation of psoriasis (Chiricozzi et al., 2011; Di Cesare et al., 2009; Ettehadi et al., 1994; Harden et al., 2015; Lowes et al., 2005).