- Psoriasis is a T lymphocyte–driven systemic inflammatory disease. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for establishing and maintaining immune tolerance. In this study, we found that patients with psoriasis and healthy controls had comparable percentages of circulating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs, but psoriatic Tregs had reduced suppressive function. Thereafter, mRNA arrays were performed to study the gene expression profile of psoriatic Tregs. Psoriatic Tregs expressed high levels of a T helper type 1–like transcription factor and cytokines such as T-bet and IFN-γ.
- Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune skin disease that often occurs in rubbed areas undergoing a strong mechanical stretch, such as the elbows and knees. However, the pathologic role of mechanical tension in psoriasis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of keratinocyte mechanical stretch to the clinical features of psoriasis. We found that keratinocyte proliferation and skin barrier-associated gene expression increased significantly after 24 hours of continuous stretching.
- Keratin 17 (K17), a marker of keratinocyte hyperproliferation, is a type I intermediate filament that is overexpressed in psoriatic epidermis and plays a critical pathogenic role by stimulating T cells. However, the posttranslational modification of K17, which is reversible and targetable, has not been elucidated. Herein, we reported that K17 could be modified through ubiquitination that controlled its stability and led to the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of its interactor signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is a key regulator of cell proliferation in psoriasis.
- PlxnB2 and its ligand, CD100, were originally identified as axon-guidance molecules that function during neuronal development; however, studies also showed that CD100-plexins participate in various immune responses. In this study, we found that the expression of PlxnB2 on keratinocytes was specifically increased in lesional skin of psoriasis patients but not atopic dermatitis. Levels of soluble CD100 and membrane-bound CD100 were elevated in sera of psoriasis patients and on keratinocytes of psoriatic skin, respectively.
- Keratin 17 (K17) is strongly expressed in psoriatic lesions but not healthy skin, and plays a crucial role in disease pathogenesis. The mechanism of aberrant K17 expression in psoriasis has not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs are short, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression. Psoriasis exhibits a specific microRNA expression profile distinct from that of healthy skin. In this study, we showed that miR-486-3p was markedly reduced in psoriatic epidermis and negatively correlated with the psoriasis area and severity index score.
- Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation of epidermis. Although hyperproliferation-associated keratins K6, K16, and K17 are considered to be the hallmarks of psoriasis, the molecular basis underlying the overexpression of these keratins remains unclear. Nrf2 regulates cell proliferation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nrf2 regulates keratinocyte proliferation via promoting expression of K6, K16, and K17 in psoriasis. We initially found that psoriatic epidermis exhibited elevated expression of Nrf2.
- Psoriasis is characterized by resistance to infections, which is regulated by antimicrobial proteins. Whether antimicrobial proteins play a pathogenic role in psoriasis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of lipocalin-2 (Lcn2), an antimicrobial protein, in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Our results showed that Lcn2 was highly expressed in the lesional skin of psoriatic patients. The neutralization of Lcn2 alleviated epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation, and especially neutrophil infiltration in an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like murine model.